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Physiology and Related Studies is a degree category that consists of the following common degrees:

  • Physiology

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    Avg Grad Salary:

    $63k

    Physiology

    Physiology explores how the human body functions in health and disease. Physiologists study organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs, as well as the respiratory, nervous, and cardiac systems. Their goal is to better understand cell and system physiology to discover new ways of preventing and curing disease. In the words of physiologist Ernest H. Starling, ‘the physiology of today is the medicine of tomorrow.’

    Physiology is closely related to anatomy. Anatomy is the study of the bodily structure of a living organism – the form. Physiology is the study of its mechanisms – the function. The two are intrinsically linked, and together with foundational courses in biology, chemistry, and physics, they form the core of the physiology curriculum.

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  • Endocrinology

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    Avg Grad Salary:

    $62k

    Endocrinology

    Endocrinology is a subspecialty of internal medicine that focuses on the organs of the endocrine system – the network of glands in the human body that make the hormones that help cells communicate with one another. Endocrinologists are concerned with hormone deficiency and excess and how these conditions affect metabolism, growth, weight, sleep, digestion, mood, reproduction, sensory perception, menstruation, lactation, and organ function.

    Endocrinology programs, therefore, teach doctors in training about the many glands that make up the endocrine system, specifically:

    • Adrenal glands – two glands located atop the kidneys that secrete cortisol, the body’s main stress hormone, and aldosterone, which regulates blood pressure and sodium levels
    • Hypothalamus – a part of the lower middle brain that tells the pituitary gland when to release hormones
    • Ovaries – the female reproductive organs that produce the female sex hormones
    • Pancreas – an organ in the abdomen that makes digestive enzymes that break down food and also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon
    • Parathyroid – four small glands behind the thyroid that play a role in bone health and regulation of calcium in the blood
    • Pineal gland – a gland in the center of the brain that produces the chemical melatonin, which regulates sleep patterns
    • Pituitary gland – the endocrine system’s master gland, which uses information it gets from the brain to tell other glands in the body what to do
    • Testes – the male reproductive glands that produce male sex hormones
    • Thymus gland – an organ in the upper chest that makes white blood cells that fight infection and are crucial to the development of immune system in early life
    • Thyroid gland – a butterfly-shaped organ in the neck that controls metabolism

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  • Cardiopulmonary Science

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    Avg Grad Salary:

    $60k

    Cardiopulmonary Science

    Degree programs in cardiopulmonary science prepare students to work as cardiopulmonary technologists and respiratory therapists. These professionals assist doctors with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with heart (cardio) and lung (pulmonary) conditions that affect breathing and blood circulation.

    The curriculum, which has its foundations in biology, chemistry, anatomy, physiology, and microbiology, covers respiratory care for neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients; diagnostic testing; acute care and outpatient therapeutic techniques; and operation and maintenance of instrumentation involved in these procedures.

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  • Exercise Physiology

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    Medium

    Avg Grad Salary:

    $62k

    Exercise Physiology

    Exercise physiology is a specialization within the field of kinesiology. It is focused on the human body’s response and adaptation to physical activity.

    Exercise physiologists analyze their clients’ fitness to help them improve their health, maintain good health, or achieve athletic performance goals. They administer exercise stress tests, paying particular attention to heart and lung strength, and then design appropriate fitness plans.

    Students of exercise physiology study anatomy and physiology, anatomical and mechanical kinesiology, cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation, exercise prescription, and nutrition. In less technical terms, they learn how to help people live their longest, best life possible.

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  • Pathology

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    Avg Grad Salary:

    $60k

    Pathology

    Pathology is the science of the causes and effects of diseases. Pathologists are the medical doctors who analyze organs, tissues, blood, and body fluids to search for medical conditions and diagnose disease and illness. In other words, their job is to solve often complex medical mysteries. Pathologists typically do not have direct contact with patients, but they work closely with primary care physicians and other medical specialists. This unique position in medical practice has earned them the moniker of the ‘doctor’s doctor.’

    Students of pathology choose a concentration in one of the two branches of the field, distinguished from each other by the kind of sample studied. Anatomic pathologists examine samples from organs and tissues. Clinical pathologists test body fluids such as blood, urine, and saliva.

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  • Oncology and Cancer Biology

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    Avg Grad Salary:

    $61k

    Oncology and Cancer Biology

    The mission of oncology and cancer biology programs – also called cancer research programs – is to train the next generation of cancer biologists to make significant contributions to research in cancer prevention and diagnosis, cancer epidemiology, discovery of new therapies, and cancer treatment. Degree programs in the field span many disciplines, including molecular and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, microbiology, bioinformatics, and immunology.

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